o German metal-smith, created the printing press in the 1440s, used metal letter blocks to print written work much more quickly and easily.
o Significant to European history because his work allowed the works of many important Renaissance figures to move throughout Europe with more ease.
o German religious teacher, Protestant leader (“Lutherans”), pushed for more personal religious choice and for the ceasing of religious power in institutional form, instead supporting the idea of “faith alone, grace alone, Scripture alone.”
o Significant to European history because he led the European Protestant Reformation, drastically changing European religion forever.
Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Enlightenment, events in people’s lives are what decide what kind of person they are, earliest writer with the movement.
Significant because his work influenced the French and American Revolutions in addition to jumpstarting the Enlightenment.
Encyclopedia: The Rational Dictionary of the Sciences, the Arts, and the Crafts, edited Encyclopedia with d’Alembert, worked to put all kinds of Enlightenment work in one place.
Brought the work of all parts of the Enlightenment to more people, all in a single place, helping gain strength in the movement.
Economist from Scotland, Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Wealth of Nations), “invisible hand,” little gov involvement in econ, anti-mercantilism, people should be able to use their own personal goals to make the economy run effectively, gov to give products that helped all.
Significant because he led the way of capitalism becoming the most popular economic system in Europe, as is still the case today.
o Agricultural expert, taught that farmers should use his “seed drill” to make sure that seeds were planted with regulation, also pushed for farmers to use horses in place of oxen for work because horses were faster animals.
o Significant because he worked to move European agriculture in a definitely industrial direction.
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, very much pro-women’s rights, pushed for schooling for women and equivalent treatment overall in society as well.
Significant because she was a leading writer of the beginnings of the women’s rights battle.
o First in 1838, through 1848
o Group that pushed for all males to have the right to vote, very pro-democracy, “People’s Charter,” unsuccessful petitions to British government in 1839, 1842, and 1848, working class membership.
o Significant because it got the British working class more involved in government, creating more success for the group later on.
o Austrian psychologist, created the concept of people being comprised of id, ego, and superego, but with no real reason for humans’ actions, ego=reason, so the most important, lack of reason in id and superego make life difficult, Civilization and its Discontents.
o Significant because he was a leader in new psychological thought of the early 1900s.
o Head of the Solidarity movement of Poland, opposition to the Communist government, achieved democratic elections in 1989, in which Solidarity was very successful.
o Significant because his work eventually led to the failure of the USSR.