o Divine Comedy outlines travels from hell, to purgatory, and later to heaven, published somewhere between 1310 and 1320.
o Significant to European history because the Divine Comedy highlighted the importance of religion in the Middle Ages and it was an early example of genuine Italian writing.
o Italian, deep interest in ancient Roman arts, came up with an education that focused on the individual in roughly the year 1350 (Humanism).
o Significant to European history because his focus on what became known as “humanism” sparked the beginning of the Renaissance period.
o Italian political scientist, served in Florence’s government, wrote The Prince, which advocated for officials to be harsh if needed in order to reduce chaos and danger for constituents.
o Significant to European history because he was one of the first political scientists to really create different governmental practices than what were already in place.
o German metal-smith, created the printing press in the 1440s, used metal letter blocks to print written work much more quickly and easily.
o Significant to European history because his work allowed the works of many important Renaissance figures to move throughout Europe with more ease.
o Italian Renaissance artist, Pieta, the David, and the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, began work as an employee of the Medici family.
o Significant to European history because he created many pieces of art that are now symbols of the Renaissance.
o German Renaissance artist, Northern Renaissance, took ideas of Italian Renaissance, the Apocalypse series, Knight, Death, and the Devil, The Fall of Man (Adam and Eve).
o He is significant to European history because he essentially began the Northern Renaissance.
King Henry VIII:
o King of England 1509-1547
o In response to divorce-related issues, he decided to separate England from the Catholic Church in the 1530s, then beginning the Anglican Church.
o Significant to European history because he brought upon serious religious change in England.
o French critic of the Catholic Church, belief system emphasized predestination, the immense power of G-d, and the fact that free choice did not really exist in life, followers formed the “Calvinist” movement.
o Significant to European history because he was a leader in the Protestant Reformation and also was more widely accepted than Luther had been.
o German religious teacher, Protestant leader (“Lutherans”), pushed for more personal religious choice and for the ceasing of religious power in institutional form, instead supporting the idea of “faith alone, grace alone, Scripture alone.”
o Significant to European history because he led the European Protestant Reformation, drastically changing European religion forever.
o Italian explorer with Spanish financing, first to land in the Americas (1492), even though he thought that he was in the vicinity of Japan.
o Significant to European history because he discovered the continental area that would prove to cause a huge deal of European hostilities over colonization and other issues pertaining to the land.